We may be looking at a future in which shipping-perhaps even sailing vessels-may make a big comeback. If so-hopefully people won’t clearcut forests in order to do that.
“Today’s global road emissions have a strong and long-lasting effect on climate.”
“….for aviation there is a strong short-term warming by aviation-induced contrails and cirrus clouds…. climate effects that decrease relatively quickly over time”
“Current shipping emissions differ from emissions from the road and aviation sectors by having a cooling effect on climate that lasts 30-70 years. This cooling effect results from the very high emissions of SO2 and NOx. However, the warming effect will dominate in the long term because shipping also emits significant amounts of CO2.”