The theories behind this study have been debated (at times rather hotly) among
meteorologists & oceanographers for over a decade.

ASW

Research to Investigate the Tropical Cloud Systems’ Roles in Climate Stabilization

23:15 GMT, Wednesday, 22 October 2008 00:15 UK
 
Study probes clouds’ climate role 
 
The clouds’ impact on the climate is relatively unknown to modellers  An
international team of scientists is hoping to shed light on how clouds over the
Pacific Ocean are affecting global climate and weather systems.

The clouds, some of which are bigger than the US, reflect sunlight back into space
and cool the ocean below.

The team hopes to learn more about the clouds’ properties and if pollution from
activities such as mining affect the formation of these systems.

The month-long study will involve more than 200 experts from 10 countries.
A team of 20 climate and cloud experts from the UK’s National Centre for Atmospheric
Science (NCAS) are taking part in the expedition, which will be based in Chile.

Hugh Coe, the lead scientist for the British consortium, said the project would help
improve the accuracy of climate change models.

“These are some of the largest cloud systems in the world and we know that they must
play a very significant role in climate change, yet we know that climate models do
not represent them very well,” he explained.

“This campaign is a fantastic opportunity to make cutting-edge
measurements in a unique environment and merge them with state-of-the-art climate
models.

“We hope to finally hit some of the uncertainties in current climate models on the
head.”

Cloud catching

Professor Coe and his colleagues will gather data via cloud and dust probes fitted
to two research aircraft, which will be flown through the low-lying cloud masses, in
order to understand how the systems form, how reflective they are, and what factors
determine how long the clouds last.

The type of cloud being investigated is known as a marine stratocumulus.

They usually occur near land where deep, cold, upwelling water reaches the surface
of the sea.

This water cools the surface air, resulting in condensation and cloud formation.

The clouds do not exceed 2km in altitude, and they are present nearly all year round
in the South-East Pacific region.

It is already understood that the clouds play a role in influencing the planet’s
climate because the vast formations act like massive mirrors that reflect sunlight
back into space and limit the amount of solar energy that reaches the Earth’s
surface.

However, the UK team will also be hoping to establish whether pollution from mining
actives along the Chilean and Peruvian coasts affect the clouds’ properties.

Tiny particles emitted during the mining processes are carried up into the
atmosphere and form droplets when they come into contact with water vapour within
the atmosphere.

The NCAS researchers will also gather data to assess whether the particles affect
the amount of rain produced and if the particle-filled clouds are more reflective
than normal clouds.

The UK project – funded by NCAS, the Natural Environment Research Council (Nerc) and
the UK Met Office – is one part of an international three-year project called VOCALS, which is exploring how complex interactions between clouds, oceans and land affect the world’s climate.

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